To explain 50 years of low-performing mathematics education research, this paper asks: Can mathematics and education and research be different? Difference-research searching traditions for hidden differences provides an answer: Traditional mathematics, defining concepts from above as examples of abstractions, can be different by instead defining concepts from below as abstractions from examples. Also, traditional line-organized office-directed education can be different by uncovering and developing the individual talent through daily lessons in self-chosen half-year blocks. And traditional research extending its volume of references can be different, either as grounded theory abstracting categories from observations or as difference-research uncovering hidden differences to see if they make a difference. One such difference is: To improve PISA performance, Count and ReCount before you Add.

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